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Deviations of the vertical in The Netherlands from geodetic-astrnomical observations

PoG 24, G.J. Husti, Deviations of the vertical in The Netherlands from geodetic-astrnomical observations

G.J. Husti

Delft, 1978. 68 pagina's.
ISBN-13: 978 90 6132 224 5. ISBN-10: 90 6132 224 3.


Deviations of the vertical in The Netherlands were until recently known from latitude and azimuth observations carried out in the years 1893-1899 from gravimetrical measurements carried out by Vening Meinesz in the years 1913-1921, and from a number of Laplace stations measured in the period 1947-1973.

This publication deals with the latitude and longitude determinations carried out by Mr. C. De Vries at a number of stations of the primary network in the years 1974-1977, using a Zeiss Ni2 Astrolabe. At every station two independent measurements were performed in different periods, from which the mean external accuracy for the latitude and longitude per station amounts to sj = 0''.2 and sl = 0''.3. The final results are given in section 6, table 8.

The observer's personal error was determined from similar observations, carried out regularly at a reference station. As such served the observation pillar of the Satellite Observatory at Kootwijk, and, in one case, that of the Laplace station Goedereede. The results of the latitude and longitude determinations of Kootwijk using a Wild T4 instrument are also included in this report. The longitude of this station was used as reference value for determining the observer's personal error from time to time. See section 4, table 2.

The deviations of the vertical related to the ED50 reference system, are shown in section 6, table 8 and in Fig. 4.


  • Preface 4
  • Introduction  5
  • The method of simultaneous latitude and longitude determination. Mathematical model  5
  • Computer programmes  8
  • Latitude and longitude determination in Kootwijk using a Wild T4  9
  • Latitude and longitude determination using a Zeiss Ni2 Astrolabe  12
  • Final results and deviations of the vertical  17
  • References  19


  1. List of the astronomical stations. Plane rectangular coordinates referring to the Netherlands
    Triangulation system. Coordinates of the centre and of the instrument site; reduction to the centre  21
  2. Computer input of the measurements  23
  3. Computer output of the measurements  45  
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